Jalapeño Pepper Guide: Heat, Flavor, Uses

What are jalapeño peppers?

Even those relatively new to hot peppers know of jalapeño peppers, but what’s interesting is the overall reputation this hot pepper has. Many people think of the jalapeño as a very spicy hot pepper, but in terms of the Scoville scale, it is merely mild to moderate. Jalapeño peppers have a Scoville heat unit range of 2,500 to 8,000 Scoville heat units (SHU). That’s mighty low compared to the hottest peppers in the world, some of which top the 1,000,000 SHU mark on the pepper scale. It’s also much milder than that cayenne pepper you have sitting on your spice rack (30,000 to 50,000 SHU).

But most of those hotter peppers never find their way to normal grocery store shelves. There, the jalapeño is king, and its spiciness is far more than much that you’ll find there. Its bright, grassy flavor, too, makes the jalapeño very versatile in the kitchen – perfect for everything from salads to stuffed peppers.

jalapeno pepper

Table of Contents

Jalapeño pepper fast facts

Scoville heat units (SHU)2,500 – 8,000
Median heat (SHU)5,250
Jalapeño reference pointN/A
Capsicum speciesAnnuum
Size2.5 to 3 inches long, pod-like
FlavorBright, Grassy, Bitter

Where do these chilies come from?

The pepper originated in Mexico. Over 160 square kilometers of land are still dedicated to the growing of jalapeños in the country. It’s also grown in the United States, particularly the southwestern states of Texas and New Mexico, which of course border Mexico. The cultivation of jalapeño peppers in the United States is definitely not at the same scope as in Mexico though; only about 22 square kilometers are dedicated to growing jalapeño peppers in total in the U.S.

The name comes from a town in Mexico near where it is cultivated most often: Xalapa, Veracruz. Xalapa has a variant spelling jalapa that cues your more in on the origin of the name. In Mexico, this most famous of all peppers actually goes by a few different monikers, including chiles gordos, huachinangos, and cuaresmeños.

How hot are jalapeño peppers?

The jalapeño is pretty much the perfect amount of heat for those that like a little kick, but don’t want to challenge their taste buds to a duel. It ranges from 2,500 to 8,000 Scoville heat units (or SHU for short.) Most people can enjoy this chili. It’s one of the great culinary peppers in the world, finding its way into Tex-Mex dishes, Thai recipes, Spanish foods, and much more. This is truly a pepper that has fans all over the world.

But let’s put this into perspective against actual numbers. When comparing the jalapeño to some other popular peppers, you can see how far away jalapeños are from being considered “super-hot”. Poblanos are extremely mild (1,000 to 1,500 Scoville heat units) and jalapeños – while a minimum of three times hotter than a poblano are dwarfed even by the likes of that cayenne powder in your spice rack (30,000 to 50,000 SHU). When comparing to the habanero (100,000 to 350,000 SHU) or ghost pepper (one of the milder super-hot peppers at 855,000 to 1,041,427 SHU), it’s not even close. Against the world of the Scoville scale, the jalapeño is just not that spicy.

For more on the differences, take a look at some of our showdowns which compare the jalapeño head to head with another chili:

What do jalapeño peppers taste like?

Jalapeños are typically picked (and eaten) while they are still green in color and not totally ripe. In their green form, jalapeños tend to have a bright, grassy flavor. They can even have a slight bitterness to their taste.

There are those, though, that prefer a totally ripened red jalapeño pepper. When red they lose the bright, bitter flavor and gain in sweetness (and often overall median heat). The heat comes from the capsaicin found in the pepper, so the red version – with more time on the vine – tends to be hotter than green. But it’s still within the same 2,500 to 8,000 SHU range on the Scoville scale.

What do they look like?

At 2 to 3.5 inches in total length, this is as pod-like a pepper as you’ll ever see. Compared to other hot peppers, it’s moderate in total size. Some are stouter and some are longer. But in most all cases, there’s a large enough cavity for stuffing.

Common jalapeño peppers age from green to red, and, as mentioned, change in flavor (gaining in sweetness) as they mature. There are other varieties of jalapeños as well, some hybridized to grow larger, others of totally different colors (like the beautiful purple jalapeño), and some are bred to be more or less spicy than the common version.

–>Learn More: Jalapeño Varieties Are Many…And All Delicious

What is a good jalapeño substitute?

The best is a serrano pepper. It’s similar in taste – bright and grassy – without the same level of bitterness. Though, it is a step up in heat: 10,000 to 23,000 SHU. They can run from near equal in heat to nearly ten times hotter.

For more alternatives, take a look at our post on the best jalapeño substitutes.

What are some good jalapeño uses?

This chili pepper is so versatile, not only because of its very eatable heat but also because of its fresh, bright flavor. It works so well with other fresh vegetables, so anywhere where a bell pepper would be used, a jalapeño could be used instead. Try it in salads, fresh salsas, sandwiches, and vegetable medleys to add a little spark to the meal.

An area where jalapeños really shine is as a popper pepper. Jalapeños have relatively thick walls and a wide cavity for their size, perfect for stuffing.

Cooking with jalapeños

This is one of the easiest chilies to cook with, both because they are easy to find in supermarkets and because their relatively easily handled. You can work with jalapeños using your bare hands, but when you start cutting, it’s best to put on kitchen gloves. The capsaicin in this chili can still provide an uncomfortable level of chili burn, especially if you touch your eyes. Jalapeño in eye is a common enough occurrence that we’ve written a whole post on how to remedy it. Also learning how to treat chili burn in general is a very smart first step before handling any chilies.

Other smart beginners tips:

  • To get an idea of how hot a jalapeño may be, look at its exterior skin. If there are cracks, those are often a sign of that particular chili being hotter than others.
  • Leaving the membrane in while cooking jalapeños will provide more heat than taking it off. The membrane contains much of the capsaicin in a chili.
  • Taste a small piece of the raw jalapeño before cooking or using. Yes, it may not be pleasant, but jalapeños sit at an interesting position on the Scoville scale. At their lowest heat, they border on being mild, while at the highest, they rival a solid medium-heat serrano. Getting an idea of how hot yours is before cooking will help you judge the amount to use.

–> Learn More: Cooking with Jalapeños – The Dos And Don’ts

Some of our favorite jalapeño recipes

Growing jalapeños

With all of its culinary uses and family friendly heat, this chili is an exceptional option for growing yourself. They work both in the garden and in containers. In fact, container gardening may provide the perfect amount of chilies for use in your kitchen.

For more information on planting, take a look at our jalapeño planting guide for all the information you should know.

Where can you buy jalapeño peppers?

Jalapeños can be found nearly everywhere. Whatever you call jalapeño peppers, they are good spicy eating and a global food rock star. Use them raw in dishes, pick up a chipotle rub (chipotle pepper is a smoke-dried jalapeño), or grab one of the many jalapeño hot sauces out there to add some fire to your menu. In fact, Sriracha sauce, one of the most famous hot sauce in the world, is made from red jalapeño peppers.

There are also many jalapeño products available online to tempt your tastebuds or begin your gardening adventure.

  1. Candied Jalapenos, Texas Pepper Works
  2. Candied Jalapenos, Texas Pepper Works
    $11.99 ($1.00 / Ounce)

    Candied jalapeños provide a jolt of both sweet and heat. They are surprisingly delicious served on salads, sandwiches, and even pizzas. Or you may even find yourself popping a few as a snack.

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    06/15/2023 11:11 am GMT
  3. Jalapeno Pepper Seeds, Burpee (125 seeds)
  4. Jalapeno Pepper Seeds, Burpee (125 seeds)
    $7.37 ($0.06 / Count)

    If you have a green thumb, growing jalapeños can be done indoors or out. Burpee's seeds are known to have excellent germination rates.

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    We earn a commission if you click this link and make a purchase at no additional cost to you.

    06/15/2023 12:16 pm GMT

UPDATE NOTICE: This post was updated on April 13, 2022 to include new content.
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Augusto Rodríguez

In my perception, the US jalapeño is heater than Mexican jalapeño. That’s the reason why people from US are aware of eating jalapeño in México, but is not the same. I had tried in México and in US and I prefer US, because I love spicy food.


When I lived in New Mexico my co-workers used to grow some great Jalapeño’s, Birds Eyes, and Anaheim type Peppers on there ranches. There is nothing like fresh picked then oven roasted chiles with egg’s, hand made flat bread and home fries for breakfast. 😉